Marijuana mutations

Mutations affect every living organism, they teach us about it in our early school years. Marijuana mutations are a natural and common phenomenon, so theoretically there is nothing to be afraid of if they are observed. With the current, very advanced genetics, it is safe to say that in almost all available marijuana varieties such mutations occur, although they are not always noticeable. Often, for professional engravers, marijuana mutations are desirable and necessary to create new or improve existing cannabis strains. Marijuana mutations can manifest themselves in a variety of ways in the plant, and we'll outline some of them below.

DNA is one of the keys to understanding mutations

cannabis mutation

Before we delve directly into the topic of what mutations of marijuana occur, what are their characteristics, whether they can be controlled in any way, etc., we should break down the phenomenon itself into prime factors mutation.

"A mutation can be defined as a random, accidental change in the sequence of nucleotides or in the very organization of DNA (genotype) or RNA of a living being, which manifests itself in a change in its characteristics".

As is known, long chains of nucleotides form polymers of DNA and RNA. In the vast majority of changes (mutations) touch either a single nucleotide or a fairly small region of DNA out of the billions of nucleotides that make up a given genome.

Even a small change in any of these areas can result in genetic variability, which can then be observed in all living organisms. So much so that if it wasn't for mutations, we would all be identical, and more interestingly, we would be deprived of evolutionary and adaptive capabilities. In other words. Mutation refers to "mistakes" in the genetic code, resulting in changes that help distinguish between individuals of the same species. Mutations occur in almost every living organism. So also in hemp.

Why do mutations occur in nature at all?

cannabis mutations

The sugar-phosphine backbone and base pairs, linked together by hydrophobic interactions, constitute the structure of the DNA double helix. Already during the division of a single cell, changes in the DNA sequence can occur, and then the entire DNA machinery can make an irreversible mistake. Of course, biology indicates that cells have mechanisms that are responsible for checking all base pairs (adenine-thymine and cytosine-guanine), but even so, these mechanisms can sometimes make a mistake that results in a mismatch. It can be said that this is a phenomenon that subsequently manifests itself as a mutation.

Are all mutations visible to the naked eye?

Well, no. There are many mutations that go completely unnoticed. This is because a mismatched base pair will still produce the same amino acid. In addition, the mutations themselves can occur in a number of different ways, for example by base insertions, deletions or substitutions. Random mutations, e.g. during cell division, can be induced, i.e. caused by specific external factors. In general, it can be said that mutations can be somatic or germline (the latter can be passed on to the next generation).

And how can mutations affect cannabis?

You don't have to be a Harvard biologist to figure out that a mutation can affect living organisms both positively (beneficially) and negatively (adversely), or it may even remain (neutral) or go unnoticed. In order for the development of each living organism to proceed properly and in a sustainable manner, certain criteria of their genetics and DNA must be met. This of course also applies to cannabis.

In plants, including marijuana, DNA changes can affect many of its characteristics. Let's include these: plant structure, color, shape of leaves, germination rate, appearance and location of buds, ability to yield or photosynthesis etc. Fortunately, marijuana mutations, especially those that do not deform the plant, allow the plant to develop normally, albeit in an unusual way, but usually without affecting its health.

This means that mutations can cause cannabis plants to have leaves of different colors, an odd number of tops, or even more branches than they should. The truth is that while most growers would prefer to grow plants that are not deformed, watching a mutated plant grow can be both educational and fun at the same time.

marijuana mutations

Albino cannabis involves discoloration of the leaves or buds. Plants can live with this mutation unless they are 100% albino, in which case they lack the ability to carry out photosynthesis.

Cannabis albino - that is, white marijuana

While all marijuana mutations are very interesting for cannabis lovers, some are more eye-catching. Color diversity attracts the eye and curiosity more than others, especially when it comes to albinos. These mutations can manifest themselves in various forms, e.g. white streaks on the leaves (they can appear as whole leaves or various combinations, e.g. half green - white, etc.).

albinism in cannabis
albino marijuana top

All this makes a visual impression, and these colorful marijuana mutations are caused by the complete absence or partial disappearance of chlorophyll present in the green pigment. This negatively affects the photosynthesis process in the plant, which may translate into lower growth or lower yields. As a curiosity, it is worth mentioning that albinism that occurs in a seedling can quickly cause it to die, because it will not be able to photosynthesize.

Australian Bastard Cannabis from Nomad Seed Bank - an unusual cannabis strain

This is a cannabis strain straight from Australia. It is also known as ABC and Bindi Buds. This variety is ideal if the grower wants to remain unnoticed. There are rumors that this strain dates back to the 70's and is an evolution of native Australian plants that were crossed with varieties that were marketed in Australia at the time.

ABC (Australian Bastard Cannabis) develops small, lobed leaves that look nothing like "traditional" cannabis leaves. This variety is also known for not emitting a strong odor. At close range, you can learn the combination of lemon and pine with Italian fennel. Another advantage of this strain is the relatively short flowering time (8-10 weeks). indoor). In cultivation outdoor the harvest is ready between the end of the weeding and the beginning of September. You have to admit it looks exceptional.

Australian Bastard Cannabis
abs seeds

An example of mutation propagation, which can be seen in the Australian Bastard Cannabis (ABC) variety. This mutation is really strange in that this plant develops small, smooth, non-toothed leaves.

Apart from the unusual appearance, resembling a vine, it does not seem that the mutation of this variety is particularly beneficial. In addition, all attempts to stabilize this characteristic mutation have failed, so no commercial variant of this variety has been developed. Only regular seeds of this strain are available in the market.

Commercial marijuana mutations from Dutch Passion - Frisian Duck

frisian-duck-cannabis seeds

Frisian Duck is an extremely interesting variety of marijuana, distinguished by the unusual appearance of the leaves, which differ from the "traditional" cannabis leaves. Variety Frisian Duck Dutch manufacturer Dutch Passion was created as a result of crossing strains Frisian Dew x DucksFoot. The plant at the beginning of growth is characterized by leaves-like duck foot, but it is only at the end of flowering, mainly in the peak part, that they take on a typical cannabis appearance. It is a kind of genetically stabilized, commercially available, mutant marijuana variety.

Can marijuana mutations have health-promoting properties?

In the case of this strain - definitely marijuana mutations can manifest pro-health properties. In a variation Frisian Duck they result, first of all, from the THC content itself, which has a scientifically proven analgesic effect, counteracts stress and depression. Secondly, this particular strain can help treat insomnia and appetite disorders. It is especially recommended for people who require a mild, calming effect.

Positive cannabis mutation from a Dutch seed producer

Frisian Duck od Dutch Passion is a variety that attracts attention not only with its unusual appearance (duck foot leaves), but also with a mild, relaxing effect. She is easy to grow, which makes her perfect for beginners breeders and people who value discretion. For those who seek gentle effect and want to enjoy a pleasant, relaxing experience without being heavily intoxicated, Frisian Duck Dutch Passion will be an excellent choice.

Can marijuana mutations be controlled?

You can, but be very careful. Especially if you work on a "cannabis production line", such as a seed producer, trying to isolate mutations to introduce them into modern cannabis strains. In this case, caution is imperative as there is the potential to create a vortex of unwanted mutations that could spread through cannabis genetics. To prevent this, a good breeder, once he discovers a mutation, crosses it until the mutation continues to reproduce in a full strain, with offspring. For offspring can always develop the same mutation. That is why this process requires experience, observation and constant vigilance, because one small mistake in this genetic labyrinth and control over the mutation gets out of control and often the long-term effects of such a grower's work can go to waste, consuming time and often quite a lot of money.

Marijuana seed mutations

mutations in marijuana seeds

In the vast majority of cases, cultivated cannabis seeds produce plants with a similar appearance. However, sometimes there are different types of mutations in cultivated cannabis that can be observed even with the naked eye. As mentioned above, these mutations can manifest themselves in unusual colors, leaf structure, growth patterns, or any other characteristics. An interesting phenomenon of mutations can be observed in both autoflowering and photoperiod cannabis seeds.

In the evolving world of cannabis, it is always worth being a curious and research observer. It is through understanding mutations that we can discover fascinating plant characteristics that have the potential to further develop and improve our breeding.

twin marijuana seedlings

Twin marijuana plants are one of the most common cannabis mutations. Source: https://dutch-passion.com/

Can cannabis mutations occur in seedlings?

One of the most common cannabis mutations that growers encounter is twin seedlings that grow from a single seed. With enough experience and some care, you can try to separate these twin cuttings, but you must handle the roots carefully so as not to damage them.

It is not necessary to separate such cuttings, because you can leave them side by side and get a nice result in the form of good yields. However, in most cases, some kind of training will be required to ensure that the plants growing next to each other optimally grow and receive the right amount of light. In addition, it should be remembered that two seedlings are twice as much space needed for roots - it is worth keeping this in mind when choosing the right pot.

Dutch producer Dutch Passion, indicates its automatic variation Auto Think Different, from its entire range of seeds has the greatest predisposition to the occurrence of twin seedlings.

Mutations, cloning, cuttings

Marijuana seeds, as is well known, are the result of sexual reproduction, and therefore contain the genes of both parents. Thus, both the seed and the plant growing from it are genetically unique. Keep in mind that there is a genetic imprint in the seedlings, and the seedling itself is a perfect replica of the parent plant. This means that taken from a two-month-old plant, a one-week-old seedling has the same cellular age as the parent plant, i.e. two months.

Keep this in mind if you want to get identical cannabis specimens. We wrote more about it in the article Growing cannabis from seeds or clones? In countries where marijuana cultivation is legal, many commercial users rely on breeding from colonies, thus obtaining consistent twin cannabis. It should be remembered that at the seedling stage, marijuana mutations are not always visible, for example, only during flowering.

Polyploid Cannabis - Desirable Marijuana Mutations?

It is of great importance to marijuana growers. polyploid hemp. They are a mutation showing a very large advantage in both potency and potential yield. Cannabis chromosomes are almost always found normally in pairs - one chromosome is male and the other female. This means that marijuana receives half of its genetic information from the father and the other half from the mother. In cases of a rare polyploidy mutation, this information is duplicated.

Polyploidy is a mutation that can occur both naturally as a result of germination, which is caused by errors occurring during cell division, and can also be caused by a very toxic chemical - colchicine.

Polyploid cannabis

A good example that allows us to understand polyploid mutations in more detail is one of the most popular fruits in the world - the banana. This fruit does not form seeds, so that I may have a greater harvest. A polyplodial mutation in the fruit results in more uniform plant growth. The plants themselves reproduce only by cuttings. As you can see, this type of mutation is quite common in the world of plants, while in animals this mutation is rare.

Summary – marijuana mutations

Different marijuana mutations can cause different effects, may increase or decrease overall performance and potency, or have no effect at all. Other mutations can really change a plant's appearance, color, leaf shape, flower appearance, etc., or may go completely unnoticed. For any cannabis lover, observing mutations is a very interesting and informative experience.

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Disclaimer
WARNING! In Poland, the law prohibits the cultivation of hemp other than fibrous. This post is not intended to encourage you to break the law. All content related to the cultivation and processing of marijuana is for educational and curiosity purposes only. Currently, more and more countries in the world allow their citizens to grow a marijuana bush for their own use, but Poland is not one of these countries yet.
sources:
https://herb.co/
https://www.alchimiaweb.com/
https://dutch-passion.com/

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